Mais uma vez: PRESIDENTA ou presidente

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colunista afonso 1Afonso Teixeira

A estupidez atingiu em cheio a suprema corte brasileira. O novo presidente do STF é Carmen Lúcia e afirma que quer ser tratada por “a presidente” por amor à língua portuguesa.
Por amor à língua portuguesa ou por amor às más línguas?

Quando uma mulher concorre a um cargo, o gênero do cargo é neutro: “Carmen Lúcia concorre ao cargo de PRESIDENTE do STF”. Quando assume o cargo, torna-se PRESIDENTA. O mesmo vale para prefeito, por exemplo: “Marta Suplicy é candidata a PREFEITO”; “A prefeita Marta Suplicy deliberou, hoje…”.
Quanto ao termo PRESIDENTA, a tentativa de rejeitá-lo é simplesmente odiosa.

O termo existe, há muito tempo, na língua portuguesa. É abonado pelo Aurélio, pelo Houaiss, pelo Caudas Aulette, e até mesmo pelo ultraconservador Sacconi. Em Portugal, pelo Universal, pelo da Porto (Portugal), etc. Existe também em castelhano e pode ser encontrado no Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (a maior autoridade da língua), bem como no glossário da Academia Brasileira de Letras. No italiano, também existe a forma feminina “presidentessa”, registrado em diversos dicionários, como no Garzanti. Em francês, basta consultar o Le Robert: “présidente: femme d’un président.”

Mas, nas línguas, existe uma autoridade ainda maior do que os lexicógrafos. São os autores clássicos. No Brasil, ninguém melhor do que Machado de Assis, o qual utiliza a forma PRESIDENTA em Memórias póstumas de Brás Cubas; fá-lo igualmente Carlos Drummond de Andrade em uma tradução.

A forma PRESIDENTE só é invariável em dois casos: 1. Quando é utilizada para designar um cargo ainda não preenchido. Mas não se trata de gênero masculino, trata-se de gênero neutro. 2. Quando é adjetivo (particípio presente). Essa forma, contudo é pouquíssimo utilizada.

Quando uma mulher ocupa o cargo de presidente, ela é PRESIDENTA. O termo também era utilizado para designar a esposa de um presidente.

A confusão ocorre por causa das formas terminadas em -ente (-ante), as quais designam um particípio presente, como amante, estante, restante, bastante; ente, dissidente, remanescente, presente. Todas essas formas são neutras. No entanto, há uma forte tendência a se flexionarem essas formas: ajudanta, governanta, infanta; parenta, presidenta. Isso ocorre quando cargos, profissões, afazeres, que antes eram ocupados apenas por homens passam a ser ocupados também por mulheres. Na época dos trovadores, por exemplo, as formas terminadas em -or não eram flexionadas, como “mia senior”. E, muitas delas, só chegaram a sê-lo muito tardiamente, como a diretor, a professor, a doutor, etc.

Mas o problema quanto à flexão de gênero é mais complexo do que parece. Em português, existem três gêneros (ainda que as gramáticas quase não mencionem isso): masculino, neutro e feminino. Muitas mulheres se irritam quando um professor entra na classe e se dirige aos “alunos”, apesar de haver ali mulheres e homens. O fato é que “aluno” nesse caso, não é masculino, mas neutro. Ocorre que, no latim, as substantivos e adjetivos masculinos terminavam, na maioria dos casos, em -us e pertenciam à segunda declinação; os neutros, terminavam em -um, e também pertenciam à segunda declinação. À primeira, eram os terminados em -a, e formavam o feminino. Em diversas línguas neolatinas (italiano, português, castelhano, leonês, etc.), aas formas do neutro confundiram-se com as do masculino — -us, e -um viraram -o. Mas, o feminino conservou-se como -a. Em virtude disso, quando um professor se dirige a todos por “alunos”, ele não está privilegiando os homens, mas as mulheres, pois, apenas para elas existe uma forma exclusiva, enquanto para os homens, não, já que as formas masculinas se confundem com as formas do neutro. O home é genérico; a mulher é única.

Quando Dilma Rousseff escolheu ser chamada de “presidenta”, agiu com correção, pois pretendia divulgar essa forma no Brasil. E, mais do que tudo, mostrou que as mulheres também podem alcançar os quadros mais altos da nação. Curiosamente, foi também o PT, partido de Rousseff, a colocar pela primeira vez na prefeitura de São Paulo, uma mulher para presidi-la. E, posteriormente, chegou mesmo a eleger uma outra.

Curiosa foi a reação ao governo de Luísa Erundina, a primeira prefeita de São Paulo. Era pouco respeitada nas ruas, primeiro, por ser mulher; segundo, por ser nordestina. E o desrespeito a Dilma Rousseff andou pelo mesmo caminho. Mas não se culpe o povo por isso; culpe-se uma parcela do povo que ainda não evoluiu o suficiente para ver-se como cidadão.

E esse desrespeito à mulher não é apenas papel de homens. Mulheres que não se emanciparam, que se sentem seguras de viver num estado opressor, regozijam-se do desrespeito à mulher. É o caso da ministra (termo que até há pouco não existia) Carmen Lúcia que afirmou que, por ser AMANTE da língua, deveria ser chamada de “presidente” e não de “presidenta”.

Na verdade, o que essa arrogante senhora está fazendo, não é outra coisa do que dar um “tchau, querida”, mostrando não apenas que é uma mulher submissa, mas que é, também, um cidadão submisso (que eu escrevo no neutro, por amor à língua).

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