A reforma da Previdência é um ataque às mulheres

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Perci Marrara

O governo golpista de Michel Temer enviou ao Congresso Nacional seu projeto de Reforma da Previdência que pretende alterar princípios elementares da seguridade social no País, inclusive alterando a Constituição.

Hoje existe o fator previdenciário e outros quesitos já modificaram para pior o sistema, mas no geral a aposentadoria está prevista para os homens aos 65 anos de idade e as mulheres aos 60, desde que tenham contribuído por pelo menos 15 anos. Sendo que as trabalhadoras rurais se aposentam aos 55 anos e os trabalhadores rurais aos 60 anos. Considerando o tempo de contribuição para aposentadoria os homens precisam ter 35 anos de contribuição e as mulheres 30 anos.

Muito poderia se falar sobre a mentira do rombo ou déficit na Previdência, as fraudes e os os sonegadores sempre beneficiados pelos governos, ou o quanto se perde em arrecadação por trabalho assalariado sem carteira assinada etc. Em todos os casos as mudanças que os golpistas pretendem realizar são todas drásticas, uma em particular chama nossa atenção por atingir diretamente as mulheres. Nos atentemos a um ponto específico: a tentativa de definir a mesma idade para aposentadoria de homens e mulheres, 65 anos.

As mudanças Entre as falácias que existem para justificar essa medida está uma suposta igualdade de direitos. Ao falar em igualdade tratam direito como privilégio. Alguns alegam que a expectativa de vida das mulheres é maior; outros que a tecnologia reduziu o tempo que as mulheres dedicam ao trabalho doméstico.

Desconsideram, entre outros fatores, que a permanência das mulheres no mercado de trabalho formal é menor que a dos homens e, principalmente, a jornada excedente de trabalho, comumente chamada de dupla jornada que não diminuiu apesar do avanço da tecnologia, ao contrário do que dizem.

O fato é que as mulhere não trabalham exclusivamente fora de casa. Sua vida também está ocupada com os cuidados do lar, da maternidade, cuidado com idosos e doentes, e todo tipo de atividade doméstica.

Além disso, elas “ficam em média 37 meses no mesmo trabalho, período inferior ao dos homens, que é de 41,7 meses (RAIS 2014). Isso se relaciona, entre outros fatores, à ausência de equipamentos públicos como creches e instituições para cuidados com idosos e enfermos”; têm ainda “ocupações mais vulneráveis, com baixos rendimentos, maior rotatividade e menor qualificação”.

As condições para as mulheres não são iguais. A própria página oficial do que era ministério da Previdência (e se tornou uma pasta do ministério da Fazendo no governo golpista), diz que “a Previdência Social exerce um importante papel na proteção social às mulheres por garantir a renda em idade avançada ou em caso de doença, acidente, morte e, principalmente, maternidade. As mulheres apresentam uma expectativa de vida superior à dos homens e, por isso, são maioria da população idosa, sendo que grande parte delas chega à velhice sozinha. Conforme os dados do IBGE [em 2003], 55% da população com mais de 60 anos é do sexo feminino e 54,6% das mulheres entre 65 e 70 anos não têm companheiro. Além disso, as mulheres são responsáveis por 41% dos domicílios brasileiros chefiados por aposentados e pensionistas. Dessa forma, as estatísticas mostram que grande parte das mulheres deve chegar à idade avançada sem companheiros e com o encargo de cuidar de sua família e, neste momento, é fundamental que elas estejam amparadas pela previdência”.

Em documento de 2016, o ministério afirma que as horas dedicadas por mulheres ao trabalho doméstico “é mais que o dobro de horas [dos homens] e se torna maior em países em desenvolvimento. Evidentemente, isso se transfigura em um dos empecilhos para que a mulher dedique maior tempo em horas no trabalho remunerado e, certamente, as mulheres de baixa renda são as mais propensas a isso, uma vez que não possuem condições de custear empregado(a) doméstico(a), tampouco de pagar creche particular, e dependem dos serviços públicos, que, muitas vezes, não atendem a toda a demanda. Razão esta que também contribui para uma maior inserção da mulher em trabalhos informais e precários, já que estes não exigem horários e locais de trabalho fixos, o que permite maior conciliação com as responsabilidades familiares”.

A previdência é o mínimo que o Estado pode oferecer tendo em vista que já não apoio para o cuidado com as crianças e nos afazeres domésticos, “bem como medidas que favoreçam melhores condições de trabalho, aqui se incluem férias, licenças-maternidade e paternidade maiores, jornadas de trabalho flexíveis, aumento no número de creches, entre outras” (Min. Previdência).

Nada disso é invenção brasileira. Embora não seja fundamental, o Brasil tem pactos internacionais que estão relacionados com os serviços prestados pela Previdência e procuram atender às exigências do Pacto Internacional dos Direitos Econômicos, Sociais e Culturais da ONU (1966) e da Convenção sobre a Eliminação de Todas as Formas de Discriminação Contra a Mulher (1979).

As mudanças previstas pelos golpistas para a seguridade, a previdência social, são um brutal ataque aos direitos das mulheres.

A direita mais reacionária está unida aos neoliberais, ao imperialismo contra as mulheres e os trabalhadores. Como já foi dito aqui, como tal, deve ser tema central da luta das mulheres no próximo período. Esse tema ao lado do aborto devem ser o mobilizador da luta contra o golpe e os golpistas de conjunto.

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