O Brasil tem muitos partidos?

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A direita no Brasil colocou como um dos pontos mais importantes a abundância de partidos, Aécio Neves defende a ideia de que não dá para governar com tantos partidos, o que ele quer dizer é que a burguesia não consegue governar com esses partidos, o regime se esgotou, o golpe de estado dado este ano visa modificar esse regime para garantir essa chamada “governabilidade” para a burguesia.

A história de que existem muitos partidos é antiga, ela é uma pauta comum da direita e da extrema-direita, até Hitler falava que existiam partidos demais. Onde a burguesia é mais poderosa ela consegue impor um bipartidarismo, como nos EUA, na Alemanha o congresso é composto por apenas 5 partidos, varia de acordo com a capacidade da burguesia de impedir pela força a representação popular, isso eles chamaram de “governabilidade”.

De um ponto de vista democrático geral é preciso dizer de que não é dever do Estado garantir a formação de governo, se o executivo quer ter maioria nas duas casas, ele tem que vencer uma eleição democrática e justa para essas casas, usar o poder do Estado para restringir a representatividade e garantir o governo é algo criminoso. Por exemplo, no Brasil os golpistas derrubaram Dilma, mas se veem numa posição de dificuldade a fazer o congresso concordar com propostas que o governo propõe, como as 10 medidas contra a corrupção, o governo golpistas está forçando setores da própria direita e dos golpistas a aceitar, diante desse fato eles dizem : Temos partidos demais, precisamos de uma “reforma política”. Essa reforma é simples, vamos dificultar o acesso ao congresso, vamos dificultar o acesso de forças minoritárias e facilitar o das majoritárias, ou seja, tornar o congresso o menos representativo possível.

Existem várias medidas, a mais clara é a cláusula de barreira, onde apesar de você ter os votos, se eles não atingirem um certo coeficiente arbitrário não terão cadeiras no parlamento. Nas eleições gregas de setembro de 2015, o partido Unidade Popular teve 150 mil votos e nenhuma cadeira no parlamento, já a União dos Centristas teve 180 mil e levou 9 cadeiras, pois o primeiro não alcançou a barreira ( por menos de 2%) e o segundo sim.

A burguesia também impôs em vários lugares, como no Brasil, uma barreira a criação de novos partidos, fazendo com que grupos sejam obrigados a colher centenas de milhares de assinaturas para legalizar e terem um representação política, tudo isso vai no mesmo sentido da reforma política. Para terminar, existem partidos e grupos, como o Movimento Brasil Livre, que querem diminuir o número de cadeiras no congresso, para impedir a participação popular.

A solução para isso é simples, a mais ampla e irrestrita representação popular, onde a burguesia quer impedir o número de partidos, tem que ser defendida a mais ampla liberdade partidária, é direito do trabalhador legalizar um partido e disputar o voto, o juiz de quem estará no congresso ou não tem que ser o povo, não pode ser nenhuma lei, promotor ou magistrado, por isso além de tirar as restrições a legalização de partidos, também deve ser direito de uma pessoa se candidatar independentemente de um partido.

A direita quer diminuir o número de deputados para tirar ainda do mais do alcance do trabalhador a participação política, a isso deve se dizer : Hoje temos poucos deputados. O parlamento inglês tem 650 membros, um quarto maior que a câmara, para 65 milhões de pessoas, quase quatro vezes menos que a população brasileira. O congresso precisa ser o mais representativos possível, para que os trabalhadores possam intervir com mais facilidade.

O direito de se candidatar e ter um congresso com um número capaz de representar seu povo não faria sentido sem um processo eleitoral minimamente democrático. A proposta de cláusula de barreira é draconiana, nada deve estar entre os partidos que representam a população e a participação no parlamento.

A ditadura mostrou a vontade da direita, depois de terem derrubado o governo de João Goulart, pois não conseguiam governar pela via eleitoral, a crise de “governabilidade” não cessou, então fecharam todos os partidos e abriram apenas dois, o MDB e Arena. É a versão radical da cláusula de barreira proposta pelos golpistas, pois na primeira o governo decidiu que não vão ter outros partidos definitivamente, na segunda sobrariam um punhado de partidos apoiados pelos grandes capitalistas. Finalmente nem isso resolveu a crise de governabilidade da ditadura, a solução foi o fechamento do próprio congresso, o AI-5.

O único número aceitável de partidos, é o número de partidos que a população decidiu criar, se o Estado decide que vão se dois, três ou 30, já um sinal extremo de autoritarismo, a política tem que ser regida pelo povo, todo o poder emana do povo. A experiência histórica mostrou que se o país está dividido, o congresso tem que representar essa divisão e não tornar uma posição minoritária em majoritária, essa é uma política clássica das ditaduras.

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