O fascismo: um movimento para aniquilar as organizações operárias

Compartilhar:

Após o golpe, e, necessariamente, antes deste, o fascismo e os movimentos de extrema-direita crescem no Brasil e no mundo. A gigantesca confusão que é gerada por esses movimentos coloca a pergunta: o que é e o que não é fascismo?

Nesta série de três artigos, serão discutidos o mesmo número de temas: primeiro, o que é o movimento fascista e suas raízes sociais; um segundo dirá qual é a ideologia do movimento fascista e o que é a organização fascista; e, finalmente, um artigo sobre o fascismo nos dias de hoje. Sem mais delongas, ao assunto.

O fascismo surgiu pela primeira vez na Itália. O movimento fascista surge em meio à Primeira Guerra Mundial, a partir de um racha do Partido Socialista Italiano (PSI), um partido reformista, que abandonou a ideologia marxista por uma política de “reformar” o capitalismo. Benito Mussolini, recém-saído do PSI, fundou os fasci di combattimento, o embrião do Partido Nacional Fascista.

A situação política e econômica na Itália era instável, para dizer o mínimo. A participação da Itália na Primeira Guerra Mundial levou o país à beira da falência, além de matar e mutilar centenas de milhares. As contradições eram imensas. A burguesia organizou uma guerra por territórios e mercados, e quem foi lutar foram os trabalhadores, que nada tinham a ganhar. Para justificar o enorme esforço de guerra, uma forte campanha nacionalista, por parte das burguesias, surgiu em todos os países envolvidos. Os fascistas saíram como os principais defensores do nacionalismo e da guerra, e o movimento se mostrou uma alternativa para a burguesia.

Após a guerra, a crise social apenas aumentou. Em 1917, aconteceu a Revolução de Outubro, que levou o proletariado ao poder pela primeira vez, mudando o cenário político. A guerra mundial, a fome e a destruição colocaram o movimento operário na defensiva, mas a república dos sovietes deu força ao proletariado mundial.

Na Itália, o movimento operário começou a ganhar força novamente. Surge o Partido Comunista, e a tensão é sucedida por grandes greves. Na Alemanha, a Liga Espartaquista, predecessora do Partido Comunista Alemão, começa uma revolução que é derrotada, onde morrem Rosa Luxemburgo e Karl Liebknecht.

A situação era volátil. Na Itália, a classe trabalhadora também se preparava para uma tomada do poder. O movimento operário ganhava força e o fascismo também crescia, mas em velocidades muito diferentes. Em 1920 começou uma onda de greves com ocupações de fábrica, um levante de caráter revolucionário, e as forças de repressão já não conseguiam mais parar as greves e nem o fascismo. Mas a força maior naquele movimento era o PSI, que coloca um freio às mobilizações. Lentamente o movimento começa a refluir, uma derrota estava sendo imposta pelas direções do movimento operário.

A burguesia, vendo a derrota do movimento, começa a considerar uma contrarrevolução, a tomada do poder pelo fascismo. De 1920 a 1922, a história italiana é marcada por um crescimento vertiginoso do fascismo, crescimento tradicional de movimentos apoiados pela grande burguesia. As esquadras fascistas estavam sendo usadas para atacar o movimento operário, e a esquerda cedia mais espaço ao fascismo, não achava possível que este chegasse ao poder, muito como no golpe que ocorreu no Brasil em 2016.

Finalmente, o fascismo chegou ao poder em 1922. Terminamos, assim, uma brevíssima história do fascismo italiano, para ilustrar a análise que faremos a seguir. Uma análise sobre o governo fascista será feita no próximo texto da série.

O Fascismo é um movimento de massas contrarrevolucionário. Mas no que implica essa afirmação?

Em seus primórdios, é necessário dizer que, diferentemente da direita tradicional, o fascismo criou uma militância e uma organização de massas para atacar o movimento operário. Que setores compõem o fascismo? A burguesia naturalmente domina o movimento, mas ela não tem número para um movimento de massas, então o fascismo cresce entre a pequena-burguesia, as classes médias. Dentro do Partido Fascista de Mussolini havia muitos estudantes, funcionários do estado, advogados, médicos, membros do judiciário e, principalmente, funcionários da repressão e das forças armadas. Mas a pequena-burguesia não é a única que simpatiza com o fascismo. Por causa da intensa demagogia social do fascismo, ele atrai para dentro do movimento um setor da classe trabalhadora desesperado e desmoralizado, o chamado lumpemproletariado. Esses são os desempregados e, com eles, os criminosos e foras-da-lei de todo o tipo, um setor atrasado ligado à classe operária, que vê no fascista uma saída para a sua situação desesperada. Mas isso não dá um caráter “lumpemproletário” ao fascismo. Ele, em primeiro lugar e em muito maior número, organiza a pequena-burguesia. O fascismo é, sem dúvida, um movimento burguês.

Quando surge o fascismo?

O fascismo já existe na sociedade, existem grupos fascistas de vários tipos e tamanhos (o último texto explicará mais sobre esses grupos), mas as maneiras como ele se desenvolve são muito importantes. O fascismo surgiu de um acirramento da luta entre as classes, foi se desenvolvendo e se enfrentando com a classe operária. Ele cresce com a crise social, mas, ao contrário do que pensam, não cresce para sufocar um levante revolucionário. O fascismo chegou ao poder depois de os trabalhadores da Itália terem sido derrotados, então, nesse sentido, o fascismo foi uma arma solidificar uma vitória sobre o povo. O principal alvo do fascismo são os partidos da democracia burguesa, e não os da revolução. Por isso que ele surge e se desenvolve na luta dos partidos de direita contra partidos democráticos burgueses como o PT, tal como vemos hoje.

O que fazem os fascistas? E por que fascistas e não militares?

O fascismo organiza milícias de capangas para mandar atacar os sindicatos, espancar trabalhadores, quebrar greves na força. Os fascistas começam uma campanha de terror contra a esquerda, invadem sindicatos, centros acadêmicos, numa tentativa de expulsar os movimentos políticos do cenário político. Então por que não usar o exército? O exército, em situações em que a burguesia está cogitando o fascismo, entra em cena dividido, não há coesão dentro das forças armadas para realizar o golpe sozinho. O fascismo reúne uma milícia coesa ideologicamente, que não teme represálias do Estado para atacar os movimentos operários. Na Itália, os fascistas reuniram-se com pedaços de madeira, facas e armas para atacar o movimento operário, tudo isso fundamentado num movimento de massas gigantesco: o Partido Fascista chegou a ter 6 milhões de filiados. A milícia fascista, por questões de coesão política e ideológica, tem mais condições de enfrentar o movimento operário.

Fascismo é um movimento de massas construído pela burguesia, com o objetivo de acabar com a democracia operária, suprimir não só os sindicatos, mas as organizações de caráter popular também. Portanto, é necessário haver uma organização e uma ideologia que justifiquem essa barbárie (tema do nosso próximo texto).

artigo Anterior

Snowden e o golpe no Brasil

Próximo artigo

Golpistas se aproveitam da crise do Rio

Leia mais

170 Comentários

  1. I just want to mention I am just beginner to weblog and absolutely loved you’re page. Likely I’m want to bookmark your blog . You really come with superb writings. Appreciate it for sharing with us your blog site.

  2. Can I just say what a relief to search out someone who really is aware of what theyre speaking about on the internet. You positively know tips on how to deliver a difficulty to gentle and make it important. Extra people need to read this and understand this facet of the story. I cant imagine youre not more fashionable because you definitely have the gift.

  3. I must show my passion for your kindness supporting women who must have help on in this subject matter. Your real commitment to passing the message across turned out to be unbelievably productive and has usually helped others like me to get to their desired goals. This informative advice means so much a person like me and even more to my mates. Best wishes; from each one of us.

  4. I抦 impressed, I need to say. Actually not often do I encounter a blog that抯 each educative and entertaining, and let me let you know, you have got hit the nail on the head. Your idea is outstanding; the difficulty is one thing that not sufficient individuals are speaking intelligently about. I am very joyful that I stumbled throughout this in my seek for one thing referring to this.

  5. Thanks a lot for giving everyone such a spectacular possiblity to discover important secrets from this site. It is usually so kind plus full of a great time for me and my office friends to visit your site at minimum thrice every week to see the new things you have got. Not to mention, I’m just at all times contented considering the dazzling methods you give. Certain two points on this page are in reality the best I have ever had.

  6. Thanks so much for providing individuals with such a brilliant chance to read articles and blog posts from this website. It can be very useful and also packed with a good time for me and my office acquaintances to search your blog on the least three times per week to find out the newest guides you have got. Not to mention, we are actually fascinated for the gorgeous ideas you give. Certain 1 tips on this page are in truth the best we have had.

  7. Nice post. I be taught something more difficult on completely different blogs everyday. It would all the time be stimulating to read content from different writers and observe slightly something from their store. I抎 choose to use some with the content on my blog whether or not you don抰 mind. Natually I抣l provide you with a link in your internet blog. Thanks for sharing.

  8. Thanks so much for giving everyone an extraordinarily pleasant opportunity to read critical reviews from here. It is usually very cool plus stuffed with fun for me and my office mates to search your site on the least thrice in a week to find out the fresh stuff you will have. And lastly, I am just at all times fascinated with your remarkable inspiring ideas you serve. Selected 1 points in this post are undoubtedly the very best I have ever had.

  9. There are some interesting points in time in this article but I don抰 know if I see all of them heart to heart. There is some validity however I will take hold opinion till I look into it further. Good article , thanks and we want extra! Added to FeedBurner as well

  10. There are actually a number of details like that to take into consideration. That may be a great point to convey up. I provide the thoughts above as basic inspiration but clearly there are questions like the one you bring up the place crucial thing might be working in honest good faith. I don?t know if best practices have emerged around things like that, but I am certain that your job is clearly identified as a fair game. Each boys and girls feel the impact of just a moment抯 pleasure, for the rest of their lives.

  11. I抦 impressed, I need to say. Actually rarely do I encounter a blog that抯 each educative and entertaining, and let me tell you, you’ve hit the nail on the head. Your thought is excellent; the problem is something that not sufficient persons are speaking intelligently about. I am very joyful that I stumbled throughout this in my seek for something referring to this.

  12. Thank you for all of the work on this site. My aunt take interest in setting aside time for internet research and it is simple to grasp why. A lot of people know all concerning the lively manner you make very helpful information through the web site and as well as cause participation from some other people on the theme and our favorite child is actually being taught so much. Enjoy the rest of the new year. You are conducting a remarkable job.

  13. Nice post. I learn one thing more challenging on different blogs everyday. It would at all times be stimulating to learn content material from other writers and apply somewhat something from their store. I抎 choose to make use of some with the content on my weblog whether or not you don抰 mind. Natually I抣l give you a hyperlink in your net blog. Thanks for sharing.

  14. Fantastic beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend your web site, how could i subscribe for a blog web site? The account aided me a acceptable deal. I had been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered bright clear idea

  15. Thanks for sharing excellent informations. Your web site is very cool. I’m impressed by the details that you have on this website. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject. Bookmarked this website page, will come back for more articles. You, my friend, ROCK! I found just the information I already searched all over the place and just couldn’t come across. What a great website.

  16. I as well as my buddies appeared to be going through the best information on your web blog then the sudden got a terrible feeling I never thanked the website owner for those tips. My women are actually as a result joyful to read all of them and now have surely been having fun with those things. Appreciate your turning out to be really accommodating as well as for picking out such tremendous issues most people are really eager to be aware of. My very own sincere apologies for not saying thanks to earlier.

  17. The subsequent time I learn a weblog, I hope that it doesnt disappoint me as a lot as this one. I imply, I do know it was my option to learn, however I truly thought youd have something attention-grabbing to say. All I hear is a bunch of whining about something that you would fix for those who werent too busy on the lookout for attention.

  18. It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I want to suggest you few interesting things or suggestions. Maybe you could write next articles referring to this article. I want to read even more things about it!

  19. I loved as much as you’ll receive carried out right here. The sketch is attractive, your authored material stylish. nonetheless, you command get got an nervousness over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come more formerly again since exactly the same nearly very often inside case you shield this increase.

  20. Excellent goods from you, man. I’ve understand your stuff previous to and you are just extremely magnificent. I really like what you’ve acquired here, certainly like what you are stating and the way in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and you still care for to keep it sensible. I cant wait to read far more from you. This is really a terrific website.

  21. I intended to write you this very little word in order to thank you very much the moment again with the pleasing thoughts you’ve shown in this article. This has been certainly tremendously open-handed with you to provide freely all that most of us could have sold as an e book to generate some money for themselves, most notably now that you could have tried it if you ever decided. Those thoughts likewise served like the fantastic way to be certain that someone else have the same fervor just like my own to realize more and more with regards to this condition. I am certain there are lots of more enjoyable times ahead for those who look over your website.

  22. I’m just commenting to make you know of the exceptional discovery our daughter experienced reading yuor web blog. She noticed plenty of issues, most notably what it is like to possess an excellent teaching mindset to let the others with no trouble gain knowledge of specified tortuous subject areas. You truly exceeded our own expectations. Many thanks for supplying those warm and helpful, healthy, edifying and also fun tips about this topic to Mary.

  23. I am no longer sure the place you are getting your info, but good topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or figuring out more. Thanks for great information I used to be looking for this info for my mission.

  24. What i don’t understood is actually how you’re no longer actually much more well-preferred than you might be right now. You are so intelligent. You already know therefore significantly in the case of this subject, produced me individually believe it from so many various angles. Its like men and women aren’t involved unless it¡¦s one thing to do with Woman gaga! Your personal stuffs excellent. Always take care of it up!

  25. Nice post. I was checking continuously this blog and I am impressed! Very helpful information specifically the last part 🙂 I care for such information much. I was looking for this particular information for a very long time. Thank you and best of luck.

  26. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your web site and in accession capital to assert that I get actually enjoyed account your blog posts. Anyway I’ll be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you access consistently rapidly.

  27. I definitely wanted to type a small remark in order to thank you for those unique recommendations you are sharing at this website. My particularly long internet lookup has at the end been honored with excellent knowledge to go over with my partners. I would declare that many of us website visitors actually are unquestionably fortunate to dwell in a notable place with many brilliant people with insightful methods. I feel very much grateful to have come across the website and look forward to really more amazing times reading here. Thanks again for a lot of things.

  28. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wished to say that I have truly enjoyed surfing around your blog posts. In any case I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again soon!

  29. I as well as my buddies were found to be analyzing the great hints on your website while immediately came up with an awful feeling I had not thanked the website owner for them. All of the guys are already consequently glad to read them and have now sincerely been using these things. I appreciate you for truly being really accommodating and also for pick out variety of notable subject matter millions of individuals are really needing to be informed on. My very own sincere apologies for not expressing appreciation to sooner.

  30. Magnificent goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you are just too fantastic. I really like what you have acquired here, really like what you are saying and the way in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and you still care for to keep it sensible. I can’t wait to read far more from you. This is really a terrific website.

  31. Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite reason appeared to be on the net the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while people think about worries that they plainly don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people can take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

  32. It is appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I want to suggest you few interesting things or advice. Perhaps you can write next articles referring to this article. I wish to read even more things about it!

  33. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have put in writing this web site. I am hoping the same high-grade blog post from you in the upcoming as well. Actually your creative writing skills has encouraged me to get my own web site now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings rapidly. Your write up is a great example of it.

  34. Just wish to say your article is as astounding. The clearness in your post is simply nice and i could assume you’re an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission allow me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please continue the enjoyable work.

  35. A lot of thanks for your entire effort on this website. Gloria really likes setting aside time for investigation and it’s simple to grasp why. Many of us notice all regarding the powerful medium you produce useful ideas on the web site and in addition strongly encourage response from other individuals on this point plus our own girl is truly being taught so much. Take advantage of the rest of the new year. You’re carrying out a dazzling job.

  36. Thanks for the sensible critique. Me & my neighbor were just preparing to do a little research about this. We got a grab a book from our local library but I think I learned more clear from this post. I am very glad to see such magnificent info being shared freely out there.

  37. Undeniably believe that which you stated. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the net the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get irked while people consider worries that they plainly don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people could take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

  38. Undeniably believe that which you said. Your favorite reason appeared to be on the web the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people consider worries that they plainly do not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people could take a signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

  39. I loved as much as you’ll receive carried out right here. The sketch is attractive, your authored material stylish. nonetheless, you command get bought an impatience over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come further formerly again as exactly the same nearly very often inside case you shield this increase.

  40. My wife and i felt so fortunate when Ervin managed to finish off his basic research through the ideas he discovered out of the web site. It is now and again perplexing to just continually be releasing guidance that many many people may have been trying to sell. And we also acknowledge we now have the website owner to be grateful to for this. All the explanations you have made, the easy web site menu, the relationships you can help to promote – it’s many amazing, and it’s facilitating our son and our family reckon that the issue is brilliant, and that’s unbelievably serious. Many thanks for the whole lot!

  41. of course like your web site but you have to test the spelling on several of your posts. Several of them are rife with spelling issues and I find it very troublesome to inform the truth on the other hand I¡¦ll definitely come again again.

  42. I am no longer sure where you’re getting your information, but great topic. I needs to spend some time finding out much more or working out more. Thanks for excellent information I used to be looking for this info for my mission.

  43. I was just searching for this info for some time. After six hours of continuous Googleing, finally I got it in your site. I wonder what’s the lack of Google strategy that don’t rank this type of informative web sites in top of the list. Usually the top sites are full of garbage.

  44. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you’ve put in writing this blog. I am hoping the same high-grade web site post from you in the upcoming also. In fact your creative writing skills has inspired me to get my own blog now. Actually the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a great example of it.

  45. I¡¦ve been exploring for a bit for any high quality articles or blog posts in this kind of house . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this site. Studying this info So i¡¦m happy to express that I have an incredibly just right uncanny feeling I came upon just what I needed. I such a lot unquestionably will make certain to don¡¦t overlook this web site and give it a look on a constant basis.

  46. I was just looking for this information for a while. After six hours of continuous Googleing, finally I got it in your site. I wonder what is the lack of Google strategy that don’t rank this kind of informative sites in top of the list. Normally the top web sites are full of garbage.

  47. I have been browsing online greater than three hours lately, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It¡¦s pretty worth sufficient for me. In my view, if all site owners and bloggers made just right content material as you probably did, the net might be a lot more useful than ever before.

  48. I as well as my buddies happened to be following the good key points from your site while suddenly I had a horrible feeling I never thanked the site owner for those techniques. These people were as a consequence happy to see all of them and now have truly been taking advantage of these things. Appreciate your getting well thoughtful and for obtaining variety of impressive guides millions of individuals are really eager to know about. My personal sincere regret for not expressing gratitude to earlier.

  49. I have been browsing online more than 3 hours as of late, but I never found any fascinating article like yours. It¡¦s pretty price enough for me. In my opinion, if all webmasters and bloggers made just right content as you did, the web shall be a lot more helpful than ever before.

  50. I’ve been surfing on-line greater than three hours these days, yet I never discovered any fascinating article like yours. It is pretty price sufficient for me. In my opinion, if all website owners and bloggers made just right content material as you did, the web might be much more helpful than ever before.

  51. I do believe all of the ideas you’ve introduced for your post. They are very convincing and will certainly work. Still, the posts are too quick for novices. May just you please lengthen them a little from subsequent time? Thanks for the post.

  52. I have been exploring for a little bit for any high quality articles or weblog posts in this sort of space . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this site. Reading this info So i¡¦m satisfied to show that I have a very excellent uncanny feeling I came upon just what I needed. I so much without a doubt will make sure to do not disregard this site and give it a look regularly.

  53. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have put in writing this site. I’m hoping the same high-grade web site post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing skills has encouraged me to get my own website now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a good example of it.

  54. Thank you for another informative blog. The place else may just I get that kind of info written in such an ideal approach? I’ve a mission that I’m just now operating on, and I have been on the glance out for such info.

  55. I carry on listening to the rumor talk about getting boundless online grant applications so I have been looking around for the most excellent site to get one. Could you advise me please, where could i find some?

  56. Good web site! I truly love how it is simple on my eyes and the data are well written. I am wondering how I might be notified whenever a new post has been made. I’ve subscribed to your RSS feed which must do the trick! Have a great day!

  57. HelloHowdyHiyaHeyWhats upGood dayHi there very nicecool blogwebsiteweb sitesite!! GuyMan .. BeautifulExcellent .. AmazingSuperbWonderful .. I willI’ll bookmark your blogwebsiteweb sitesite and take the feeds alsoadditionally? I amI’m satisfiedgladhappy to findto seek outto search out so manynumerousa lot of usefulhelpful informationinfo hereright here in thewithin the postsubmitpublishput up, we needwe’d likewe want developwork out moreextra strategiestechniques in thison this regard, thank youthanks for sharing. . . . . .

Deixe uma resposta