Um cataclismo chamado Dadá

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O imperialismo arregimentou massas de milhões de pessoas para a gigantesca carnificina da I Guerra através de uma orgia de propaganda nacionalista. Toda a superestrutura da sociedade burguesa foi tomada de um frenesi patriótico, que envolvia não apenas os partidos conservadores e os altos comandos milhares, mas os partidos socialistas, os sindicatos e a esmagadora maioria dos representantes da cultura européia. Os jovens, operários, pequeno-burgueses e até mesmo burgueses, foram massacrados nas fétidas trincheiras cheias de ratos, com gás, baionetas e armas de fogo de um poder de destruição até então desconhecido, deixando um saldo macabro de mais de oito milhões de vítimas. Esta manifestação de completa decomposição da sociedade capitalista, resultado da sua transformação em imperialismo, foi engalanada com hipócrita retórica poética pela nata da intelectualidade do velho mundo. Em contraste com o otimismo oficial dos velhos, apenas uma minoria de jovens artistas, como Wilfred Owen na Inglaterra, retratavam a profunda desilusão diante da carnificina que, aos poucos, foi tomando conta das consciências.

tristantzaraaltaDa mesma forma que a onda revolucionária, que varreu os países que empilhavam corpos no campo de batalha (revoluções russa de 1917, alemã de 1918, húngara de 1921 etc.), expressava o colapso do capitalismo, as manifestações artísticas do pós-guerra vão expor o estado de bancarrota da cultura burguesa.

Estas manifestações, expressando tendências contraditórias, serão aglutinadas sob a denominação escarnecedora de Dadá, movimento que foi o precursor natural e necessário do surrealismo, havendo entre ambos uma relação dialética de continuidade e ruptura.

Nascido entre artistas da Europa Central e do Leste (o romeno Tristan Tzara, os alemães Hugo Ball, Richard Huelsenbeck e Hans Arp) exilados em Zurique, em 1916, ainda durante a guerra, Dadá (expressão do balbuciar infantil usada intencionalmente repudiar o racionalismo e a “grandeza da arte” predominantes) foi o mais radical repto contra o establishment cultural já realizado e, por extensão, contra a cultura ocidental em seu conjunto.

De curta duração (1916-22), Dadá difere radicalmente das escolas modernistas, como o cubismo, o futurismo e, inclusive, o expressionismo. Sem deixar grandes obras foi, na realidade, antes que uma escola literária ou artística, um violento, fulminante e heteróclito movimento de agitação e, pelo seu objetivo de fazer tabula rasa da cultura ocidental, um movimento antiliterário e antiartístico.

A rejeição indignada não excluía sequer os cubistas e outros modernos. Durante a guerra, parte do expressionistas, principal movimento de vanguarda na Alemanha adotara uma posição chauvinista e estava a caminho de se tornar uma corrente oficial. O movimento Dadá nasce em frontal oposição a este desenvolvimento da vanguarda alemã.

francispicabia_altaOs “dadás”, como denominavam a si mesmos, rejeitando, inclusive, os “ismos” então em voga, promoveram agressivas manifestações de deboche contra os preconceitos oficialistas e toda a pretensa “seriedade” artística, que causavam não somente escândalo, como furor que, freqüentemente, terminavam em tumultos reprimidos pela polícia. Em sua primeira apresentação parisiense, foi mostrada a um público horrorizado uma tela de Francis Picabia onde estava desenhado apenas “parte de cima” na parte de baixo e “parte de baixo” na parte de cima, tendo como legenda as letras “LHOOQ”, que pronunciadas em francês formam a frase obscena “Elle a chaud au cul”, levando a assistência à beira da agressão física.

O movimento foi apontado, corretamente, como a expressão artística do “derrotismo” diante da guerra, política que era impulsionada pelos internacionalistas, como Lênin, Trótski e Rosa Luxemburgo, cujo programa era a derrota de suas próprias burguesias na guerra pela revolução. Nesse sentido, uma das suas principais características foi a feroz oposição ao chauvinismo, fazendo com que muitos de seus integrantes aderissem às posições revolucionárias da classe operária (um dos fundadores, Richard Huelsenbeck, era espartaquista e foi por uma semana “comissário de Belas-artes” durante a revolução de 1918), dando-lhe um caráter de um verdadeiro movimento internacional que se estendia da Alemanha até os EUA (Duchamps, Picabia, Man Ray), reunindo, em uma única corrente de impugnação total da hipocrisia nas letras e artes, o melhor da vanguarda artística dos principais países do mundo. De um modo geral, os participantes do movimento Dadá integraram-se aos Partidos Comunistas ligados à revolução russa de 1917.

man_ray_alta2O movimento nasceu em Zurique em torno das atividades promovidas por Hugo Ball que havia criado o famoso Cabaré Voltaire. As famosas soirées do Cabaré acabaram por reunir inúmeros artistas de diferentes especialidades que declamavam poemas, encenavam, tocavam música, faziam objetos de decoração etc. Os artistas rivalizavam na arte da provocação contra a cultura oficial e o gosto limitado do público e na criação das mais inusitadas técnicas artísticas. Surgiram ali as principais características do movimento: a música de barulhos, os poemas feitos de palavras inexistentes, as manifestações de artes plásticas abstratas e conceituais.

Hugo Ball compôs para uma das soirées um poema abstrato, ao qual se seguiriam outros:

 

Gadji beri bimba glandridi laula lonni dacori

Gadjama gramma berida bimbala glandri galassassa laulilimini

Gadji beri Bin balassa glassala laula gliglia wowolimai Bin beri ban

 

(…)

 

A reação do público foi explosiva. Finalmente, o cabaré foi fechado pela pressão da boa classe média e da burguesia local sobre o proprietário do imóvel.

A segunda etapa do movimento coincide diretamente com a revolução alemã de 1918 e se encerra com a derrota sangrenta da revolução nas mãos da social-democracia e dos militares facistóides. Em 1918, o movimento se desloca para Berlim, incorporando novas figuras como Raoul Haussman, Johannes Baader, Hannah Höch, George Grosz. John Heartfield, contribuindo para aglutinar um movimento de amplitude nacional com artistas dadá de Hanover, como Kurt Schwitters, de Colônia como Marx Ernst, de Dresden, Otto Dix e outros.

andrebretonO dadá berlinense e, por extensão alemão, mostrou-se claramente desde um primeiro momento como um movimento político que se colocava ao lado da revolução proletária contra o decrépito regime do Kaiser. Lançaram contra o capitalista, a guerra, o regime monárquico e a própria República de Weimar em um sem número de manifestos, proclamações e eventos diversos com slogans e frases políticas de efeito provocador: “colocaremos uma bomba sob Weimar. Berlim é o local Dadá. Nada nem ninguém será poupado!”

O assassinato dos líderes da Revolução Alemã, os espartaquistas Rosa Luxemburgo e Karl Liebknecht em janeiro de 1919 provou uma ainda maior radicalização do movimento que se ampliou em diversas atividades dirigidas à população em geral e à classe operária. Segundo declarou Hausmann “o proletariado estava paralisado e não podia ser sacudido de sua narcose. Por isso, tivemos que intensificar as ações do Dadá: contra um mundo que nem sequer conseguia reagir com determinação perante horrores imperdoáveis” (No início era Dadá).

A revolução, no entanto, iniciava a sua trajetória descendente com a morte dos dois grandes revolucionários, continuaria com dois anos de massacres e terminaria na contrarrevolucionária República de Weimar que abriria caminho para o poder dos nazistas.

O último grande evento do movimento foi uma exposição realizada em agosto de 1920. Embora tivessem colocado em ação todo o seu radicalismo político, este não estava em harmonia com a situação. A repressão geral lançou-se contra eles e os organizadores foram processados por “ofensa ao Exército alemão” em função de uma das peças da exposição. No tribunal, Grozs, através do seu advogado, acaba por fazer uma apostasia das provocações Dadá aceitando alegar que se tratava apenas de uma piada, com o que foi inocentado.

Incubado durante a guerra e restrito uma boêmia marginalizada da sociedade, crescido sob a breve Revolução Alemã nos anos de 1918 e 1920, o movimento Dadá viria a explodir mundialmente no início dos anos 20 e o epicentro desta explosão foi, logicamente, Paris. Mantendo, há muito, correspondência com Tristan Tzara, uma das principais figuras do círculo do Cabaré Voltaire em Zurique, considerado o verdadeiro fundador do dadaísmo, Breton serviu como elo de ligação entre os iniciadores e uma plêiade de novos poetas, reunidos em torno à sua pessoa: Louis Aragon e Philippe Soupault, que viriam a ser, com ele, chamados de “os três mosqueteiros do surrealismo” e, ainda, Paul Éluard, Jacques Digaut, René Char, Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes e outros. A estes juntaram-se, em Paris, os artistas plásticos Francis Picabia, Man Ray, Max Ernst e Hans Arp. Neste grupo fora do comum atuará ainda Benjamin Péret, que terá uma participação de destaque nos primeiros anos do trotskismo no Brasil.

marcelduchampEm fevereiro de 1819, André Breton lê na casa de Guillaume Apollinaire o Manifesto Dadá 1918, de Tristan Tzara, o qual considera que “veio estourar como uma bomba”. Terminada a guerra, o poeta encontrava-se em uma situação de verdadeiro impasse intelectual. Admirador do simbolismo francês, via claramente a sua insuficiência diante das necessidades do pós-guerra. Em um balanço posterior declarou que “a beleza por eles celebrada não é mais a nossa, e já na época começava a dar a impressão de uma dama de véu perdida na distância[1].

Sua ruptura com Paul Valéry, por quem tinha grande admiração, consumou-se quando este poeta, evoluindo para um claro conservadorismo, propôs a volta à formas métricas da literatura clássica de Racine e, finalmente, ingressou na Academia Francesa de Letras.

Em 1919, Breton funda, com Louis Aragon e Philippe Soupault, a revista Littérature, título sugerido pelo próprio Valéry em alusão ao último verso da Arte poética do simbolista Paul Verlaine, “e todo o resto é literatura”[2]. Aí participaram os últimos remanescentes do simbolismo como o próprio Valéry e André Gide e escritores da vanguarda de antes da guerra reunidos em torno de Apollinaire: Max Jacob, Pierre Reverdy, Blaise Cendrars e André Salmon.

A revista vai antecipar muitas das características do surrealismo, publicando os Cantos de Maldoror de Isidore Ducasse, conhecido como Conde de Lautréamont, poeta maldito do romantismo, esquecido, do qual Breton manuscreve os versos de uma rara cópia em uma biblioteca e as Cartas de guerra, de Jacques Vaché, considerado fonte fundamental de inspiração.

Será também neste período que Breton e Soupault vão realizar a primeira experiência nas técnicas surrealistas, criando juntos o primeiro texto de escrita automática, intitulado Champs magnétiques. O novo método visava a liberar o fluxo do inconsciente dos constrangimentos do pensamento consciente e da elaboração literária.

O estado de espírito de Breton, nesta etapa, pode ser medido pela sua reação à morte prematura de Jacques Vaché em virtude de um excesso de ópio: “exercia sobre nós uma sedução sem igual. O seu comportamento e os seus ditos eram-nos objeto de contínua referência. As suas cartas tinham o efeito de um oráculo, cuja particularidade era ser inesgotável (…) encarnava para nós o mais alto poder de “desapego” (o cúmulo de desapego em relação a tudo o que hipocritamente se professava, desapego em relação à arte – ‘a arte é uma estupidez’ -, desapego sobretudo em relação à ‘lei moral’ vigente, que acabava de dar toda a medida do seu valor.(…)”[3].

É com tais expectativas que Breton vai ler o manifesto onde Tzara proclamava: “um grande trabalho negativo a cumprir”, o qual, segundo Breton, “ateou fogo ao paiol”.

O grupo reunido em torno a Littérature empreende uma ruptura profunda com o modernismo da geração anterior representado por Apollinaire que se mostra incapaz de romper com o nacionalismo, o espírito pseudo científico e o esteticismo dos artistas oficiais que como Anatole France, Paul Claudel e Maurice Barrès haviam se transformado, aos seus olhos, em um caso de corrupção literária pura e simples.

Em janeiro de 1920, Tristan Tzara chega a Paris e transforma-se no centro da agitação artística Dadá em Paris, organizando diversas “noitadas” artísticas e literárias onde o objetivo básico era o de agredir o público e escarnecer as convenções.

O grupo de Littérature abre as páginas da revista para os famigerados manifestos Dadá e promove uma enquête, com a pergunta “Por que você escreve?”, que, de acordo com Breton, “arrastou o mundo literário para uma armadilha ainda não esquecida (…) registrando suas respostas, em grande maioria lamentáveis, por ordem de mediocridade”[4]. A armadilha consistiu em que os jovens escritores, aproveitando-se de um certo patrocínio dos mais velhos, como Valery, conseguiram fazer com que uma grande quantidade de nomes importantes dos círculos literários franceses colaborassem, caindo na armadilha.

A enquête foi aproveitada, por contraste, para desvalorizar a arte de escrever: “escrevo para abreviar o tempo”, assinalou Knut Hamsun, “por fraqueza”, segundo Valery.

phillipesoupalt_altamaxenerst_alta2Breton e Soupault escrevem pequenas peças para serem interpretadas nas “noitadas” parisienses de Dadá, como Vous m’oublierez (Vocês me esquecerão), interpretada por eles mesmos, na qual receberam com enorme satisfação “um bombardeio de ovos, tomates e até bifes que os espectadores foram adquirir precipitadamente no intervalo. O que o público pensava de nós, pensávamos nós dele em cêntuplo[5].

Em 1921, o movimento Dadá em Paris dá sinais precoces de esgotamento. Breton e seus amigos mais próximos cansam-se da repetição de artifícios utilizados para chamar a atenção e chocar o público, tais como anunciar falsos eventos onde, por exemplo, o ator Charlie Chaplin estaria aderindo a Dadá e onde seria executado um número ou que os dadás raspariam o cabelo em público etc. O golpe de misericórdia vem quando a crítica oficial dá o seu primeiro sinal de assimilação do caótico movimento, com um artigo do crítico Jacques Riviére da Nouvelle Revue Française, intitulado Reconhecimento a Dadá. Para Breton, “Dadá beneficiava-se da hostilidade geral e tinha feito o possível para obtê-la. Para quem éramos então, nada era mais estimulante que ser objeto de vaias, quando não de furor. O sentimento que tínhamos do valor da nossa causa fortalecia-se com o fato de que a opinião pública fosse unanimemente contrária. Esta opinião, com efeito, tinha dado toda a sua medida de servilismo nos anos precedentes, e incorrer a tal ponto na sua reprovação bastava para nos persuadir que estávamos no bom caminho”[6]. A partir de agora, o movimento passava sutilmente a se integrar na sociedade e a gozar de uma forma curiosa de popularidade que afetava o comportamento de parte dos seus membros como Tzara e Picabia.

Esta situação de cansaço devida à repetição dos mesmos recursos e o esgotamento do “efeito” das manifestações Dadá, levam à abertura de uma fenda entre os futuros surrealistas como Breton, Aragon, Desnos, Soupault, Peret e os entusiastas dos métodos Dadá como Tzara, Picabia e Ribemont-Dessaignes.

O impulso decisivo para a cisão será dado pelo primeiro grupo, que toma a iniciativa na ação do movimento e dá um caráter distinto às manifestações habituais promovendo um julgamento-farsa do escritor de direita Maurice Barrès, contra quem os surrealistas exploravam o fato de ter escrito textos piedosamente nacionalistas e cínicos sobre a guerra: “a alegria reina na trincheiras! Vós o sabeis pelos jornais e pelas cartas de vossos filhos, maridos e irmãos. Não é necessário exagerá-lo; não é necessário crê-los sob palavra, os bravos etc[7].

benjaminperet2O julgamento estava longe de ser apenas uma peça cômica e sem sentido, mas foi organizado como um verdadeiro processo, de caráter moral e político, do escritor e das letras em geral, culminando com um grande escândalo na entrada de Benjamin Péret na qualidade de testemunha vestido como um soldado alemão usando uma máscara de gás.

A ruptura vem quando Breton organiza junto com outras publicações literárias de vanguarda um congresso internacional, em 1922, “para a determinação de diretivas e a defesa do espírito moderno”. O congresso não chega a acontecer, torpedeado por Tristan Tzara para quem “o dadaísmo não tem nada de moderno”. O fracasso do congresso, no entanto, leva ao fim do movimento, abrindo caminho para o surrealismo que se expressará, depois de um período de incubação, no Manifesto Surrealista, redigido por Breton em 1924.

Apesar de seu caráter meteórico, o movimento Dadá foi, do ponto de vista da forma e da técnica artística um precursor efetivo do surrealismo e um elemento de transição entre o futurismo e este movimento. É entre os Dadá, de forma ainda não desenvolvida que elementos chave do surrealismo começam a se formar como a importância dada ao inconsciente, ao acaso como elemento criativo e, acima de tudo, a ambição de romper completamente as fronteiras estabelecidas pela arte do passado. Dele, também, o surrealismo herdará o seu caráter provocador e o seu radicalismo político.

(Este texto faz parte de um capítulo do livro ainda não publicado Surrealismo e Revolução)

[1] In Entretiens, com André Parinaud

[2] “Que ton vers soit la bonne aventure

Éparse au vent crispé du matin

Qui va flueurant la menthe et le thym…

Et tout le rest est littérature.

Paul Verlaine, Art Poétique.

[3] Entretiens.

[4] idem.

[5] idem.

[6] Idem.

[7] Philippe Audoin, Les Surrealistes.

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